Table of Contents

This page may be useful to the readers of the textbook Beginning Russian because it lists the contents of this online Beginning Russian Grammar in the order in which the same material is presented in the book. References to page numbers and Lessons pertain to the second edition of the textbook. Note that a different index to the Gramamar, arranged by subject, is also provided.

The Alphabet
Sounds: Palatalization
Addressing people: ty vs. vy
  1 - 11
12 - 21
22 - 30
31 - 40
41 - 50
51 - 56
57 - 62
63 - 70
71 - 78
79 - 86
87 - 94
95 - 102
103 - 110
Grammar Reviews:
I (p. 24)
II (p. 37)
III (p. 60)
IV (p. 79)
V (p. 103)
VI (p. 121)
VII (p. 135)
VIII (p. 152)
IX (p. 169)
X (p. 188)
XI (p. 203)
XII (p. 216)
XIII (p. 234)
XIV (p. 258)
Numbers and Numerals
Special Adjectives and Last Names
First Names and Patronymics

Addressing people: ty vs. vy (p. 3)
ty vs. vy

The Alphabet (p. 4)
Russian Letters, Their Names, and English Equivalents

Sounds (p. 11)
Palatalization and paired/unpaired consonants

Grammar Review I (p. 24)
A. Grammatical Terminology
1. Parts of speech in this Grammar are defined by the form of words, not by their meaning or use.
2. Words are said to be inflected for a grammatical category.
B. Nouns: A noun is inflected for number & case; it belongs to one of 4 declension classes.
1. The four declension classes of Russian nouns.
2. Nominative vs. Accusative case: form and function
Nominative case
Accusative case
C. Pronouns: The Nominative and Accusative case forms of common pronouns

Lessons 1 - 11
Grammar: The pseudo-passive in long responses (p. 27)
Word study: и, тћже, and ещё (p. 29)
Word study: іто and ітот/іта/іто (p. 33)

Grammar Review II (p. 37)
A. Nouns: Accusative case; gender classes
1. The Accusative of #-declension and o-declension nouns is the same as the Nominative.
2. Nouns fall into three gender classes: masculine, feminine, and neuter.
B. Adjectives: Agreement with nouns; ordinary and special adjectives
1. Adjectives agree with the nouns they modify.
2. There are two classes of adjectives: ordinary and special.
C. Verbs: Russian has two tenses, the past and the non-past.
1. The past tense consists of the suffix -л- plus a gender ending to agree with the subject.
2. The non-past tense is inflected for person.

Lessons 12 - 21
Grammar: The preposition о/об (p. 40)
Grammar: The Preposition в/во (p. 45)
Grammar: words that have adjective endings but are used as nouns (p. 50)
Grammar: the word себљ 'oneself' has no Nominative form (p. 53)
Grammar: the preposition на; motion ('to') vs. location ('at') (p. 54)
Word study: Standing vs. laying/lying (p. 54)
Grammar: Verbs ending in -ся (p. 56)
Grammar: Inserted vowels (p. 57)
Conversation: declining people's names (p. 57)
The particle не in polite speech (p. 55, 120)

Grammar Review III (p. 60)
A. The Prepositional Case
1.a. The forms of the Prepositional case are...
1.b. The Nominative, Accusative, and Prepositional forms of pronouns are...
2. The principal function of the Prepositional case is to distinguish location from motion.
B. Verbs: Conjugation Classes

Lessons 22 - 30
Grammar: to have and to have not (p. 63)
Grammar: Short adjectives (p. 65)
Grammar: What color...? What gender..? (p. 66-67)
Grammar: Genitive: of, 's, and some other meanings (p. 68)
Grammar: The prepositions из and от: 'from' (p. 70)
Grammar: Perfective взїть and Imperfective брђть (p. 73)
Grammar: Свћй (p. 73)
Grammar: 'on' a day of the week (p. 75)
Grammar: Perfective пойтќ and Imperfective ходќть (p. 77)
Grammar: The past and future of нљт 'there is no' (p. 78)

Grammar Review IV (p. 79)
A. Nominative Plural
B. Genitive Case
1.a. The forms of the Genitive Singular are...
1.b. The Nominative, Accusative, Genitive, and Prepositional forms of pronouns are...
2. The Genitive case has numerous functions.
(1) The нљт construction: present, past, and future
(2) In certain expressions: to identify color, gender, and aspect
(3) After certain prepositions: у, от, из
(4) Possession (English 's and of)
C. Accusative Case: Animacy
D. Verbs: Aspect

Lessons 31 - 40
Grammar: Use по + Dative to express 'apiece'. (p. 83)
Grammar 3: 3rd Plural passive (p. 84)
Caution: Government pattern of нџжный (p. 86)
Grammar: Past and future tenses of short adjectives (p. 88)
Grammar: На-nouns (p. 88, 91)
Grammar: O-forms: Adverbs and Predicates (p. 94)
Stress patterns for verbs (p. 98)
Aspect pairs; a specific instance vs. repeated occurrences. (p. 99)
Aspect usage: Questions out of the blue (p. 100)
Word study: the wrong one (p. 101)
Grammar: Location and directions: people's places (p. 101)
Grammar: 'in' a month of the year (p. 102)

Grammar Review V (p. 103)
A. Dative Case
1.a. The forms of the Dative case are...
1.b. The five case forms of pronouns are...
2. The Dative case has these functions:
(1) Verb government, including indirect objects
(2) With certain prepositions
(3) With o-forms
(4) With certain short adjectives (нџжен 'need')
B. Review of Prepositions
1. Basic meanings of the prepositions по, к, на, в, от, у, о, and из
2. Prepositions as part of verb government patterns
3. Other meanings of the prepositions на, с, and в
C. Verbs
1. Regular and Irregular verbs
Irregular non-past.
Irregular past.
Spelling rules.
2. How to express past, present, and future
3. Aspect pairs with different roots

Lessons 41 - 50
Grammar: To express 'with, by means of' use Instrumental. (p. 109)
Professions (p. 110)
Grammar: Imperfective aspect and plurality (p. 111)
Grammar: котћрый (p. 112)
Grammar: The preposition с; Instrumental vs. Genitive (p. 114)
Grammar: The preposition под 'under' (p. 115)
Grammar: Stress patterns for nouns (p. 116)
Grammar: Stress patterns for adjectives
Grammar: The fourth declension: the ь-declension (p. 118)
Grammar: The preposition мљжду (p. 118)

Grammar Review VI (p. 121)
A. Instrumental Case
1.a. The forms of the Instrumental case are...
1.b. The six case forms of pronouns are...
2. The Instrumental case has these basic functions:
(1) To express 'with, by means of'
(2) As object of certain prepositions: с, под, мљжду, за
(3) As object of certain verbs: рабћтать, интересовђться, and занимђться

Lessons 51 - 56
Grammar: Genitive with quantity-words. (p. 123)
Grammar: Genitive case after numerals (p. 127)
Grammar: the two Genitive Plur. forms of гћд (p. 134)
Grammar: Use Instrumental to express 'in' a particular season. (p. 131)
Grammar: Use Instrumental to express 'in/at' a time of day. (p. 133)
Grammar: Use Accusative to express how long a time. (p. 133)

Grammar Review VII (p. 135)
A. The Basic Case Endings of Nouns and Adjectives
The Chart
Spelling Rules for Case Endings
Additional comments
C. Variants of Specific Endings
1. Prep., Dat.of nouns in -ий, -ия, and -ие
2. Nom. Sg. masc. of end-stressed adjectives is -ћй.
3. Genitive Plural endings
4. Optional Variant of Inst. Sg. ending

Special Adjectives and Last Names
Chart: Case forms of special adjectives
Chart: Case forms of last names in -ин and -ов/ев/ёв

First Names and Patronymics
Russian Naming Customs
Case forms of first names and patronymics

Lessons 57 - 62
Grammar: One-way and Non-One-way verbs of motion (p. 138-139)
Grammar: A Perfective verb that means 'go': пойтќ (p. 139)
Word study: both and neither (p. 140)
Grammar: Dates (p. 142)
Grammar: Use по + Dative Plural of days of the week to express habitual events. (p. 143)
Grammar: зђ город and зђ городом; motion vs. location (p. 145)
Word study: The word нђдо, another o-form. (p. 145)
Word study: дћм/домћй/дћма (p. 145)
Grammar: Reference points using the compass (p. 148)
Aspect: Round trip vs. One-way (p. 150)

Grammar Review VIII (p. 152)
A. Consonant Alternation: 2nd Conjugation
B. Aspect Pairs
Perfective or Imperfective?
(1) -ыва-/-ива- verbs
(2) -ить verbs vs. -ять/-ать verbs
(3) Prefixed vs. unprefixed verbs
(4) Other verbs

Lessons 63 - 70
Grammar: Let's (p. 155)
Grammar: Unstressed как vs. что with verbs of perception (p. 159)
Grammar: Plural with singular meaning, мІ с нљй, вІ с нќм (p. 159)
Grammar: давнћ with Imperfective non-past (p. 162)
Grammar: давнћ with past tense (p. 164)
Reminder: о-forms (predicatives) can be used to make complete sentences. (p. 165)

Grammar Review IX (p. 169)
A. Predictable and Non-predictable Verbs
Rules for predicting key forms
A list of non-predictable verbs
B. Review of Prepositions
The prepositions под and за
The preposition с
The preposition по
The prepositions к, у, мљжду, and чљрез
The prepositions в, на, из, от and о/об

Lessons 71 - 78
Grammar: The Genitive and Partitive cases (p. 172)
Grammar: The passive -ся verb продавђть(ся) (p. 174)
Word study: Adjectives with не- (p. 175)
Word study: сдђча/сдђчи, мљлочь, дљньги (p. 176)
Grammar: Telling time: on the hour (p. 178)
Grammar: Greetings with с + Instrumental (p. 178)
Word study: two verbs in a row, пойдџ куплє (p. 179)
Grammar: Aspect: trying and failing vs. not even trying (p. 180)
Word study: нљсколько vs. немнћго: count nouns vs. mass nouns (p. 181)
Grammar: Genitive object with a negated verb (p. 182)
Grammar: Locative case (p. 182)
Word study: одќн 'alone' (p. 184)
Grammar: (томЎ) назђд 'ago' (p. 184)
Word study: Travelling by car (p. 185)
Imperative forms in detail (p. 186)

Grammar Review X (p. 188)
A. Verbs with -ся ('reflexive' verbs)
B. Marginal Cases: the meaning of Partitive and Locative
C. Imperative (p. 186)
D. Time expressions
Time when
Intended time: на + Accusative
Elapsed time: чљрез + Accusative
Habitual times: по + Dative Plural (days of the week, time of day)

Lessons 79 - 86
Telling time: the right side of the clock and the half hour
Saying what time it is (p. 191)
Saying 'at' what time (p. 191)
Word study: хотљть vs. хотљться (an Impersonal verb) (p. 192)
Word study: (под)готћвить(ся) (p. 192)
Grammar: Telling time: the left side of the clock (English 'of') (p. 193)
Grammar: The Genitive case of numerals (p. 193)
Word study: Rooms (p. 195)
Grammar: чтћбы + -л- (p. 195)
Grammar: in the evening, at night (p. 196)
Grammar: Verb stems in к and г (p. 196)
Grammar: Polite imperatives (p. 199)
Grammar: Motion vs. location in sitting and lying (p. 200)
Grammar: Approximately (p. 202)

Numbers and Numerals
Quick word finder
Case forms

Grammar Review XI (p. 203)
A. Roots
ЛЁГ (лог-, лож-, лаг-, леж-, леч-, ляг-, ляж-, лёг-) 'lay, lie, put; -pose, -pone'
УК (ук-, уч-) 'learn, study'
ДАЙ (дай-, да-, дад-, дар-) 'give'
ЕД (ед-, ес-, е-) 'eat'
ЗНАЙ (зна-, знай-, знак-) 'know, cogn-, sign'
РОД (род-, рожд-) 'birth; gen-'
B. Verb Groups: Standing, Lying, Sitting
Verbs and Notes
C. The Conjunction чтобы
1. Corresponding to English 'to' or 'in order to'
2. Wishes, commands, and giving advice
D. Syntactic Peculiarities of Numerals
1. Numerals ending in ОДЌН: make одќн agree with the noun.
2. Numerals ending in двђ (masc. & neut.), двљ (fem.), трќ, четІре.
2A: What case to use for nouns
2B: What case to use for Adjectives
2C: What to do with nouns that have no Singular Forms
3. Higher Numerals: use Genitive Plural.
4. Numeral inversion means 'approximately.'

Lessons 87 - 94
Grammar: Ordinal numerals (p. 207)
Grammar: In a year, Of a year (p. 207-208)
Grammar: How old are you? (p. 208)
Grammar: Dates: On the X of a month (p. 208)
Grammar: Unreal conditional: бы + л (p. 210)
Grammar: Present deverbal adverbs (p. 212)
Word study: Marriage (p. 215)
Grammar: Past deverbal adverbs (p. 215)

Grammar Review XII (p. 216)
A. Simple (Unprefixed) Verbs of Motion
One-way and Non-One-way verbs of motion
Perfective verbs of motion
B. Prefixed Verbs of Motion
Usage and examples
Conjugation of -йти/-ходить
More Perfective and Imperfective prefixed verbs of motion
More examples
The prefixes от-/у-/вы-
C. Conditional Sentences
Real and unreal conditions: General comments
Real Conditional: Use љсли with the appropriate verb tense.
Unreal Conditional: Use бы + л in both clauses.
Special Cases

Lessons 95 - 102
Word study: With comparatives use горђздо to express 'much'. (p. 220)
Word study: стђрше vs. старље (p. 221)
Grammar: Дћлжен (p. 222)
Grammar: The comparative form of adverbs (p. 223)
Grammar: Than (p. 223)
Grammar: по- comparatives (p. 224)
Grammar: На + Accusative in time expressions (p. 226)
Grammar: Short forms of past passive participles (p. 228)
Grammar: Unstressed ни- vs. stressed нљ- (p. 230)
Word study: Wearing clothes (p. 232)
Word study: People and children (p. 232)
Grammar: -то vs. -нибудь (p. 233)

Grammar Review XIII (p. 234)
A. Comparative
Two kinds of comparatives
Expressing 'than,' 'much more/less,' and 'still more/less'
Long comparatives and по- comparatives
Examples of regular and irregular short comparatives
Adjectives with comparative meaning
B. Superlative
Short and long superlatives
Adjectives with superlative meaning
C. More Verb Prefixes
ПРО- 'past, by'; 'past, miss'; 'down; through'; к + Dat: asking directions
ПЕРЕ- 'trans-, across'
ДО- with до + Gen. 'to, up to'; used in asking directions (synonymous with про-).
ЗА- (1) к + Dat. 'stop in' (at somebody's place); (2) за + Inst. 'stop by for' (to pick somebody up)

Lessons 103 - 110
Grammar: Нђдо and мћчь with не (p. 239)
Grammar: Long forms of participles (p. 241)
Grammar: Box constructions (p. 241)
Grammar: Deverbal nouns vs. past passive participles (p. 242)
Grammar: мћжно and нельзї (p. 243)
Grammar: Duration of time (p. 243)
Grammar: Present passive participles (p. 244)
Grammar: кђк/тђк vs. какћй/такћй (p. 245)
Grammar: Ли (p. 246)
Grammar: Past active participle (p. 246)
Grammar: Instrumental case: linking verbs and double-object verbs (p. 249)
Grammar: Present active participles (p. 249-250)
Grammar: Introducing time clauses (p. 251)
Grammar: c... до... in time expressions (p. 252)
Word study: стђть (p. 254)
Grammar: Correlative constructions with тћ, что (p. 255)
Word study: Dative case alone vs. для + Genitive (p. 256)
Grammar: each other (p. 257)

Grammar Review XIV (p. 258)
A. Participles and Deverbal Adverbs
Six deverbal forms
Written vs. conversational style
Past vs. Present deverbals
B. Action-Type Perfectives
Three types of perfective verbs
Pf-awhile and Pf-begin
C. Sentence Types
General comments
Structures with a Nominative subject
Structures without a Nominative subject
1. Predicative
2. Verb
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