The position of stress in noun case forms is a difficult thing to learn, and there are no hard-and-fast rules. However, there are relatively few patterns and there is a rough relationship between stress classes and declension classes, as illustrated below.
The dictionary 5000 Russian Words and The Russian Dictionary Tree use English capital letters (immediately following the headword) to mark each noun's stress pattern. When a noun has a form with an exceptional stress shift, that form is listed in both of the dictionaries. In the table below, these forms are in parentheses.
The first letter represents the position of stress in the Singular cases and the second represents stress in the Plural cases. The letter E means stress is on the ending (if any) and S means stress is on the stem. In cases where End stress would fall on the zero ending, stress falls on the preceding vowel (e.g. зљркало SE, GPlur. зеркђл).
Sometimes the shift in stress entails the change of е to ё, as in женђ - жёны, сестрђ - сёстры. In some cases the stress pattern varies from speaker to speaker, e.g. the Plural of средђ may be E or S; such variation is noted in the dictionaries.
A useful rule of thumb for two-syllable o-declension nouns is that they are mostly SE or ES (like слћво — словђ or письмћ — пќсьма). Sometimes the patterns are made easy to learn because of semantic groupings of words, e.g. the fall and winter months are end-stressed (сентїбрь through феврђль).
бћрщ нћж словђрь рукђ (ASg. рџку) водђ (ASg. вћду) гћрод (NPlur. -ђ)
врђч отљц (е) статьї средђ (ASg. срљду) войнђ дћм (NPlur. -ђ)
гарђж падљж стћл   женђ нћмер (NPlur. -ђ)
карандђш потолћк (о) язІк   сестрђ профљссор (NPlur. -ђ)
конљц (е) продављц (е)     странђ учќтель (NPlur. -ї)
The letters shown in parentheses are inserted vowels.