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Andrew Weber

Animals Used for Testing

Anne Harrington

01. About a million people were involved in Soviet nuclear weapons production
02. We were addressing Soviet nuclear weapons and ignoring other kinds
03. Very little was known about the biological weapons community in Russia
04. Biological weapons existed in Russia for decades
05. We started engaging the biological community in Russia in 1994
06. The ISTC reached out to the biological weapons community
07. Funding projects in Russia opened the door for us to go and visit
08. There was some suspicion and sensitivity
09. Some Russian institutions held back for years
10. They said, "You're okay."
11. The ISTC ran financial and programmatic audits
12. Our goal was to work with the communitites relevant to non-proliferation issues
13. One Russian scientist was given vacuum cleaners in lieu of salary
14. People were struggling to put food on the table
15. We took the time to listen to people
16. "We've lost the dachas on the Black Sea."
17. Russian scientists were losing their perks
18. They had a personal relationship with their pathogens
19. There was pride in the work that they did
20. Some of the biological weapons experts happily moved to other areas
21. The Novosibirsk State University has a happy population of former Vector scientists
22. They are happy to have the academic freedom to publish
23. The U.S.S.R. was convinced that the U.S. continued to develop biological weapons
24. Many Russian officials never admitted what president Yeltsin declared
25. Russian scientists were put in the position of being international criminals
26. The ability to talk about the work they did in the past was a substitute confessional
27. The only nostalgia we saw was for the economic stability of life in the U.S.S.R.
28. "A few people got rich, and the rest of us have nothing."
29. Gennady oversaw the facility for producing tons of anthrax
30. The facility at Stepnogorsk was a mobilization plant for anthrax production
31. Their job was to produce anthrax to kill Americans
32. What struck you was the massive size
33. It was absolutely gargantuan
34. They were producing men's suits in a former biological weapons facility
35. Plague in a pea can
36. We suspected they carried out tests there (on the V. island)

Dastan Eleukenov

Discipline in the workplace


Gary Crocker

Gennadiy Lepeshkin and David Franz

Gennadiy Lepeshkin and Gary Crocker

Gennadiy Lepeshkin and Milton Leitenberg

Gennady Lepeshkin and Richard Spertzel

GNL: Reflections on the past

GNL: The Almaty Interview

GNL: The Washington Interview

My Work



Public discussions


Sergei Popov: My Science

Sergei Popov: The System

Yuri Orlov