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Andrew Weber

Animals Used for Testing

Anne Harrington

Dastan Eleukenov

Discipline in the workplace


Gary Crocker

Gennadiy Lepeshkin and David Franz

Gennadiy Lepeshkin and Gary Crocker

Gennadiy Lepeshkin and Milton Leitenberg

Gennady Lepeshkin and Richard Spertzel

GNL: Reflections on the past

GNL: The Almaty Interview

GNL: The Washington Interview

My Work



Public discussions


Sergei Popov: My Science

Sergei Popov: The System

01. We do not know how to protect the civilian population from a biological attack
02. An anthrax vaccine will be useless
03. A smallpox vaccine may turn out to kill more people than the smallpox virus
04. How likely is a biological attack against the U.S.?
05. We never discussed the practical aspects of a biological attack
06. I never believed that biological weapons would be used
07. The stockpiled arms served as a deterrent
08. Biological weapons gave the U.S.S.R. a unilateral advantage
09. When you strike the enemy, you strike your own forces as well (1)
10. When you strike the enemy, you strike your own forces as well (2)
11. Defense against new types of pathogens and the program called Factor
12. We do not value our people
13. In the U.S. I feel a lot more comfortable
14. The smallpox epidemic in Aralsk in 1971
15. Biological weapons program in the U.S.S.R.
16. Anti-plague institutions participated in developing biological weapons
17. The Baltic republics were only indirectly involved in the program
18. The biological weapons institute in Novosibirsk
19. Developing biological weapons was the main purpose of my institute
20. From developing new viruses to developing new bacteria
21. Suddenly I could live very close to Moscow
22. We were given our own apartments and a double salary
23. How one was recruited for secret work
24. One couldn't turn around and leave
25. Very few were able to escape
26. We were proud of being trusted with important work
27. How did the secrecy affect the research?
28. Secrecy destroys the system
29. Secrecy kills science
30. The leadership of my institute did not want the problems to be solved
31. Science versus administrative squabbles
32. My lab technicians were asked to evaluate me by a general vote
33. The word of the institute director and the Party was the law
34. Secret research institutions were prone to degeneration

Yuri Orlov