Milton Leitenberg: Of course, in any production facility of any chemical agent, but also biological agent, you worried about leaks. And of course there's the story of what happened at Sverdlovsk, though that was an internal leak, which got out of the production facility, of the Sverd... Compound 19. But they had the system of feeding the... the product from the fermenter, which has been centrifuged, to the filling machines in the bunker.
Slava Paperno: How was delivery,... and was delivery of the agent in its completed state tested in the area where the bomblets were... where the bomblets were filled?
Gennadiy N. Lepeshkin:
Well, all of the buildings were linked by a pipeline. All operations related to the material, its incubation and pumping it into various vessels and centrifuges... from the centrifuges, were part of a closed cycle. That is, pipes were used everywhere, and everything flowed through them, and everything was supposed to be hermetically sealed. The centrifuging process itself, when the centrifuges rotate, that can release cells into the air in the building, and that's why we consider it a dirty area. All of the other phases are clean. That is, there's a pipe, and the material travels through it. There shouldn't be any dispersal of cells into the environment. If there's an accident, if the pipe explodes, or something like that, if someone forgets to turn on a valve or the technology breaks down somehow, then an accident will occur. For such cases we have special procedures, special steps that must be performed. Everything that was in Building 21, the large building, was linked by a technological pipe to another building. And the finished material, the... formula, was supposed to go through that pipe. But it never did, because that task was never assigned. Everything else having to do with assembly of those bomblets, was... was done right there where the formula was made. Meaning that [the pipe] was never used.
Paperno: So bombs were never filled in those bunkers?
Leitenberg: Uh-huh, I was wrong.
Paperno: That was Building number 221, right? Where was that done?
Lepeshkin: Yes. All of it.
Paperno (interpreting): Yes, it was all done in Building 221.
Lepeshkin: That's why the two buildings were demolished.
Paperno (interpreting): That's why the two buildings were destroyed.
Lepeshkin: One was number 21 and the other was number 600.
Paperno (interpreting): Building 21... 21, [switching to Russian] or 221?
Paperno (interpreting): Buildings 221 and 600 were the ones that were destroyed precisely because these operations were conducted in those areas.
Leitenberg: OK. I thought Andy once told me it was in the bunker. OK. All right. Now I understand.
Lepeshkin: It was through those pipes that steam and hot and cold water were passed, and power lines connecting the buildings were laid.
Paperno: And did that pipe which was not used, but was intended for that, look different, was it underground?
Lepeshkin: It was underground, kind of like... a pipe of about this size.
Paperno: Made of stainless steel?
Lepeshkin: Yes, of course.
Paperno (interpreting): That part, the pipe that was intended for that, but had never been used for that, was under the ground, it was stainless steel, it was the size that Gennadiy just showed: something like three, or four inches. [Switching to Russian] And do you remember... how thick the walls were?
Lepeshkin: I think it was a number 76 pipe.
Paperno: What is a number 76 pipe?
Lepeshkin: The diameter was 76 millimeters.
Paperno (interpreting): I asked about the size of the pipe, and he said he thinks it was 76 millimeters.
Leitenberg: Well, what was it for, if filling was done in... in there?
Paperno: Oh, it was for the filling, in the future.
Leitenberg: I see.
Paperno: But it had never been tested.
Leitenberg: OK, all right.
Paperno: Would it be possible... Gena, could we...
Lepeshkin: Now this...
Leitenberg: It went to the bunker underground. OK.
Lepeshkin: Yes, yes, yes.. This is Building number 25..
Lepeshkin: And here's the pipe. And this...
Leitenberg: OK. ОК.